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Madinah munawwara

Medina, arabisch: ‏المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīna al-munawwara, „die erleuchtete Stadt​“, ist eine Stadt und nach Mekka die zweitwichtigste heilige Stätte im Islam und. Medina (arabisch المدينة المنورة al-Madīna al-munawwara ‚die erleuchtete Stadt', möglicherweise von Madīnat an-Nabī = „Stadt des Propheten“ oder aber zu. Al-Madîna Al-Munawwara - Teil 5. Al-Madîna Al-Munawwara - Teil 5. Veröffentlicht; Kategorie: Heilige Stätten; Bewertung: Madinah munawwara

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Trade improved and more people moved into the city. The banks of Wadi al-'Aqiq were now lush with greenery. This period of peace and prosperity coincided with the rule of 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz , who many consider to be the fifth of the Rashidun.

Abdulbasit A. Badr, in his book, Madinah, The Enlightened City: History and Landmarks , divides this period into three distinct phases: [3]. Badr describes the period between — CE — AH as a push-and-pull between peace and political turmoil, while Medina continued to pay allegiance to the Abbasids.

From — CE — AH , Medina was in a liaison with the Fatimids, even though the political stand between the two remained turbulent and did not exceed the normal allegiance.

From CE AH onwards, Medina paid allegiance to the Zengids , and the Emir Nuruddin Zangi took care of the roads used by pilgrims and funded the fixing of the water sources and streets.

When he visited Medina in CE AH , he ordered the construction of a new wall that encompassed the new urban areas outside the old city wall. Zangi was succeeded by Salahuddin al-Ayyubi , founder of the Ayyubid dynasty , who supported Qasim ibn Muhanna, the Governor of Medina, and greatly funded the growth of the city while slashing taxes paid by the pilgrims.

The later Abbasids also continued to fund the expenses of the city. While Medina was formally allied with the Abbasids during this period, they maintained closer relations with the Zengids and Ayyubids.

The historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet 9. Beyond the walls of the city, the west and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards, gardens and plantations.

After a brutal long conflict with the Abbasids, the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo took over the Egyptian governorate and effectively gained control of Medina.

Once in CE AH , when the storage caught fire, burning the entire mosque, and the other time in CE AH , when the masjid was struck by lightning.

This period also coincided with an increase in scholarly activity in Medina, with scholars such as Ibn Farhun , Al-Hafiz Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi , Al Sakhawi and others settling in the city.

This added Medina to their territory and they continued the tradition of showering Medina with money and aid. In CE AH , Suleiman the Magnificent built a secure fortress around the city and constructed a strong castle armed by an Ottoman battalion to protect the city.

This is also the period in which many of the Prophet's Mosque 's modern features were built even though it wasn't painted green yet. The Ottoman sultans took a keen interest in the Prophet's Mosque and redesigned it over and over to suit their preferences.

As the Ottomans' hold over their domains broke loose, the Madanis pledged alliance to Saud bin Abdulaziz , founder of the First Saudi state in CE AH , who quickly took over the city.

But the second one, a larger army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha , succeeded after battling a fierce resistance movement. After defeating his Saudi foes, Muhammad Ali Pasha took over governance of Medina and although he did not formally declare independence , his governance took on more of a semi-autonomous style.

Muhammad's sons, Towson and Ibrahim, alternated in the governance of the city. Ibrahim renovated the city's walls and the Prophet's Mosque.

He established a grand provision distribution center taqiyya to distribute food and alms to the needy and Medina lived a period of security and peace, In CE AH , Muhammad moved his troops out of the city and officially handed the city to the central Ottoman command.

Davud was responsible for renovating the Prophet's mosque on Sultan Abdulmejid I 's orders. When Abdul Hamid II assumed power, he made Medina stand out of the desert with a number of modern marvels, including a radio communication station , an power plant for the Prophet's Mosque and its immediate vicinity, a telegraph line between Medina and Istanbul , and the Hejaz railway which ran from Damascus to Medina with a planned extension to Mecca.

Within one decade, the population of the city multiplied by leaps and bounds and reached 80, Around this time, Medina started falling prey to a new threat, the Hashemite Sharifate of Mecca in the south.

Medina witnessed the longest siege in its history during and after World War I. In anticipation of the plunder and destruction to follow, Fakhri Pasha secretly dispatched the Sacred Relics of Muhammad to the Ottoman capital, Istanbul.

Soon after, the people of Medina secretly entered an agreement with Ibn Saud in , and his son, Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz conquered Medina as part of the Saudi conquest of Hejaz on 5 December 19 Jumada I AH which gave way to the whole of the Hejaz being incorporated into the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia focused more on the expansion of the city and the demolition of former sites that violated Islamic principles and Islamic law such as the tombs at al-Baqi.

The old city's walls have been destroyed and replaced with the three ring roads that encircle Medina today, named in order of length, King Faisal Road, King Abdullah Road and King Khalid Road.

Medina's ring roads generally see less traffic overall compared to the four ring roads of Mecca. The city now sits at the crossroads of two major Saudi Arabian highways, Highway 60, known as the Qassim—Medina Highway, and Highway 15 which connects the city to Mecca in the south and onward and Tabuk in the north and onward, known as the Al Hijrah Highway or Al Hijrah Road, after Muhammad's journey.

The old Ottoman railway system was shutdown after their departure from the region and the old railway station has now been converted into a museum.

The city has recently seen another connection and mode of transport between it and Mecca, the Haramain high-speed railway line connects the two cities via King Abdullah Economic City near Rabigh , King Abdulaziz International Airport and the city of Jeddah in under 3 hours.

Though the city's sacred core of the old city is off limits to non-Muslims, the Haram area of Medina itself is much smaller than that of Mecca and Medina has recently seen an increase in the number of Muslim and Non-Muslim expatriate workers of other nationalities, most commonly South Asian peoples and people from other countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council.

Almost all of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era. The rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

Saudi Arabia is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to shirk idolatry.

As a consequence, under Saudi rule, Medina has suffered from considerable destruction of its physical heritage including the loss of many buildings over a thousand years old.

It covers an area of about square kilometres square miles. The city has been divided into twelve 12 districts, 7 of which have been categorised as urban districts, while the other 5 have been categorised as suburban.

Like most cities in the Hejaz region, Medina is situated at a very high elevation. Almost three times as high as Mecca, the city is situated at metres 2, feet above sea level.

Mount Uhud is the highest peak in Medina and is 1, meters 3, feet tall. Medina is a desert oasis surrounded by the Hejaz Mountains and volcanic hills.

The soil surrounding Medina consists of mostly basalt , while the hills, especially noticeable to the south of the city, are volcanic ash which dates to the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era.

The city is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the tripoint of the three valleys wadis of Wadi al 'Aql , Wadi al 'Aqiq , and Wadi al Himdh , for this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry deserted mountainous region.

Under the Köppen climate classification , Medina falls in a hot desert climate region BWh. There is very little rainfall, which falls almost entirely between November and May.

In summer, the wind is north-western, while in the spring and winters, is south-western. Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of two mosques, Masjid Quba'a and al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

Both of these mosques were built by Muhammad himself. Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina.

Medina is mentioned several times in the Quran, two examples are Surah At-Tawbah. Medinan suras are typically longer than their Meccan counterparts and they are also larger in number.

Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins bad deeds , then he will incur the curse of God, the angels, and all the people.

According to Islamic tradition , a prayer in The Prophet's Mosque equates to 1, prayers in any other mosque except the Masjid al-Haram [34] where one prayer equates to , prayers in any other mosque.

The mosque was expanded several times throughout history, with many of its internal features developed overtime to suit contemporary standards.

The modern Prophet's Mosque is famed for the Green Dome situated directly above the Prophet's rawdhah, which currently serves as the burial site for Muhammad , Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and Umar ibn al-Khattab and is used in road signage along with its signature minaret as an icon for Medina itself.

The entire piazza of the mosque is shaded from the sun by membrane umbrellas. It is Sunnah to perform prayer at the Quba'a Mosque. According to a hadith , Sahl ibn Hunayf reported that Muhammad said,.

It has been recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim that Muhammad used to go to Quba'a every Saturday to offer two rak'ahs of Sunnah prayer. The mosque at Quba'a was built by Muhammad himself upon his arrival to the old city of Medina.

Quba'a and the mosque has been referred in the Qur'an indirectly in Surah At-Tawbah , verse Masjid al-Qiblatayn is another mosque historically important to Muslims.

Muslims believe that Muhammad was commanded to change his direction of prayer qibla from praying toward Jerusalem to praying toward the Ka'bah at Mecca, as he was commanded in Surah Al-Baqarah , verses and Three of these historic six mosques were combined recently into the larger Masjid al-Fath with an open courtyard.

Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad , caliphs and scholars are known to have been buried. Concerning the end of civilization in Medina, Abu Hurairah is recorded to have said that Muhammad said: [37].

Sufyan ibn Abu Zuhair said Muhammad said: [37]. Sham will also be conquered and some people will migrate from Medina and will urge their families and those who will obey them, to migrate to Sham although Medina will be better for them; if they but knew.

With regards to Medina's protection from plague and ad-Dajjal, the following ahadith were recorded:. As of , the recorded population was 2,,, [38] with a growth rate of 2.

As with most cities in Saudi Arabia, Islam is the religion followed by the majority of the population of Medina. Sunnis of different schools Hanafi , Maliki , Shafi'i and Hanbali constitute the majority, while there is a significant Shia minority in and around Medina, such as the Nakhawila.

Outside the haram , there are significant numbers of Non-Muslim migrant workers and expats. Similar to that of Mecca , Medina exhibits a cross-cultural environment, a city where people of many nationalities and cultures live together and interact with each other on a daily basis.

Established in , the biggest publisher of Quran in the world, it employs around people and publishes different publications in many languages.

It is reported that more than , people from around the world visit the complex every year. The Al Madinah Museum has several exhibits concerning the cultural and historical heritage of the city featuring different archaeological collections, visual galleries and rare images of the old city.

The Dar Al Madinah Museum opened in and it uncovers the history of Medina specializing in the architectural and urban heritage of the city.

The center aims to enhance arts and enrich the artistic and cultural movement of society, empowering artists of all groups and ages.

As of February , before the implementation of social distancing measures and curfews , it held more than 13 group and solo art galleries, along with weekly workshops and discussions.

The center is located in King Fahd Park, close to Quba Mosque on an area of 8, square meters 88, square feet [47]. The event includes discussions about Arabic Calligraphy, and a gallery to show the work of 50 Arabic calligraphers from 10 countries.

In April , it was announced that the center was renamed the Prince Mohammed bin Salman Center for Arabic Calligraphy, and upgraded to an international hub for Arabic Calligraphers, in conjunction with the "Year of Arabic Calligraphy" event organized by the Ministry of Culture during the years and The forum aimed to celebrate sculpture as it is an ancient art, and to attract young artists to this form of art.

Saudi Arabia is renowned for its passion of football around the world. Historically, Medina's economy was dependent on the sale of dates and other agricultural activities.

As of , varieties of dates were being grown in the area, along with other vegetables. It focuses on real estate development and knowledge-based industries.

The Ministry of Education is the governing body of education in the al-Madinah Province and it operates and public schools for boys and girls respectively throughout the province.

Established in , it was the second-largest school in the country at that time. Many Saudi ministers and government officials have graduated from this high school, which gives it a reputation of excellence and historical importance.

Taibah University is a public university providing higher education for the residents of the province, it has 28 colleges, of which 16 are in Medina.

It offers 89 academic programs and has a strength of students as of In , the university expanded its programs by establishing the College of Science, which offers Engineering and Computer science majors.

It handles domestic flights, while it has scheduled international services to regional destinations in the Middle East.

It is the fourth-busiest airport in Saudi Arabia, handling 8,, passengers in The project also aims to revive the Sunnah where Muhammed used to walk from his house al-Masjid an-Nabawi to Quba'a every Saturday afternoon.

The city of Medina lies at the junction of two of the most important Saudi highways, Highway 60 and Highway Highway 15 connects Medina to Mecca in the south and onward and Tabuk and Jordan in the north.

Highway 60 connects the city with Yanbu , a port city on the Red Sea in the west and Al Qassim in the east. The newly established bus system includes 10 lines connecting different regions of the city to Masjid an-Nabawi and the downtown area, and serves around 20, passengers on a daily basis.

Open top buses take passengers on sightseeing trips throughout the day with two lines and 11 destinations, including Masjid an-Nabawi, Quba'a Mosque and Masjid al-Qiblatayn and offers audio tour guidance with 8 different languages.

The project was set to be done in The historic Ottoman railways were shutdown and the railway stations, including the one in Medina, were converted into museums by the Saudi government.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Medina disambiguation. City in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A picture of Madinah from the north of the Prophet's Mosque with the mosque in the foreground and the city in the background.

Mount Uhud. Main articles: Hijrah and Constitution of Medina. Main article: Battle of Uhud. Main article: Battle of the Trench.

Main article: Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia. Main article: Muhammad in Medina.

Main article: The Prophet's Mosque. Main article: Quba'a Mosque. Main article: Masjid al-Qiblatayn.

Main article: The Seven Mosques. Main article: Al-Baqi' Cemetery. See also: Demolition of al-Baqi'. Main article: Islamic eschatology.

Main article: Al-Masih ad-Dajjal. Main article: Haramain high-speed railway. Saudi Arabia portal Islam portal.

Retrieved 24 June The Independent. Retrieved 17 January Williams, Khalid,, Waley, M. For opinions disputing the early date of the Constitution of Medina, see e.

Madinah is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the junction of the three valleys of Al-Aql, Al-Aqiq, and Al-Himdh which provide water to large green areas amidst a dry mountainous region.

The religious importance of Madinah is due to the role it played in the history of Islam as the city where the Prophet of Islam moved after being forced to leave Mekkah, an event which set the year zero of the Muslim calendar.

In Madinah Al-Munawarah took place some of the major events of the beginning of the Islamic era and the tracks of this glorious history are still visible today in the modern city.

The first mosque built during Muhammad's time is also located in Medina and is known as the Quba Mosque. Its first stones are supposed to have been positioned by the Prophet Mohamed after his arrival from Mekkah.

The Masjid Al-Qiblatain is another mosque also historically important to Muslims as one of the three oldest mosques along with those of Nabwiyah and Quba.

According to Muslim belief the Masjid Al-Qiblatain is where the command was sent to Muhammad to change the direction of prayer qibla from Jerusalem to Mekkah according to authentic Hadith.

Thus it was the only mosque containing two prayer niches mihrab but the one oriented towards Jerusalem was recently removed.

But the most important mosque of the city is the Masjid Al-Nabawiyah which stands for the "Mosque of the Prophet" as it hosts the tomb of the Prophet of Islam.

Al-Masjid An-Nabawi is one of the largest mosques in the world and its glorious history made of it the second holiest site in Islam after the Kaaba in Mekkah.

As such it is an important pilgrimage site for Muslims performing the Hajj. Because the people of the besieged city had dug a trench to further protect the city, this event became known as the Battle of the Trench.

After a protracted siege and various skirmishes, the Mekkans withdrew. It is important to note that the city center where the holy mosque lies and which is named Haram is forbidden to non-Muslim.

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Masjid Al Nabwi (SAW) Madina Shareef, Night View, Car Parking Area

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